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God Grew Tired Of Us

While most of the world are living their lives normally, some parts of the world are still suffering from the effects of war or are still in the war itself. Nobody can really give out the real reason when all these wars started, but its effects have really affected the normal livelihood that people should have been enjoying it. One of these countries is Sudan.

The country’s current affairs and general life of its people have gotten much better compared to what happened during the civil war. Also referred to as the Sudanese Civil War, the first one happened between the years 1955 to 1972. Another Civil War occurred, referred to as the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005.

The second civil war of Sudan was largely just a continuation of the first one, which was a conflict between the Liberation Army and the government of a country. The origin of the war was in Southern Sudan, it spread out to the Blue Nile and the Nuba mountains. It lasted for 22 years, which placed it on record as one of the longest civil wars in history.

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There were about 2 million people who died from the war, disease, and famine, which is all caused by the conflict. Four million from southern Sudan were repositioned at least once and often repeated during the war in regular intervals. The death toll on civilians was one of the highest of the war casualties since the second world war. It was also marked by the huge number of violations against human rights. These include mass killings and slavery.

What erupted to the second civil war in Sudan was due to the violation of the agreement. The Addis Adaba Accords was integrated into the Constitution of Sudan. The first of the many violations took place when the President Gaafar Nimeiry made attempts in taking control over the oil fields that straddles the border from north to south. Back in 1978, oil was discovered in the Upper Blue Nile and in a southern region of Kurdufan in the year 1979 and in Bentiu the year before that. There were also the Adar oilfields discovered in 1981 and the Unity oilfields discovered in 1980, and also in Heglig, which was discovered in the year 1982. For someone to gain entry to the oil fields would equal to significant benefit to the economy benefit to whoever has control over them.

In the north, the Islamic fundamentalists were not contented with the Addis Ababa correspondence. This gave them the relative autonomy on a majority of the non-Islamic community on the southern Sudan. This very same group continued to gather more power. And in the year 1983, President Nimeiry made a declaration that Sudan is an Islamic state, thus it terminated the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.

Known as the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, it was founded as a group of rebels in the year 1983 for the purpose of reestablishing the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region. They fought against the government for it. While they are based in the southern region, the group defined itself as a move for all the citizens in Sudan that were oppressed. The group is spearheaded by John Garang. At first, the SPLA made a campaign aiming for United Sudan, in which it criticized the central government of their policies that the rebel group sees as a development into national “disintegration”.

The announcement in September 2005 marked the end of the nation’s state of emergency, which also resulted to dismantling emergency courts. However, it soon propagated a whole new judiciary act wherein it continued a lot of the practices of the emergency courts. Even with the public assurances made by President Nimeiry in which the rights of the non-Muslims must be respected, many people from the southern region, including non-Muslims have remained deeply doubtful about it. At the end of the Interim Period, people of South Sudan voted in the referendum.

Back in January 2005 the NCP or National Congress Party, together with the SPLA signed the CPA or the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. This agreement establishes a 6-year Interim Period wherein a good number of provisions have to be implemented in order to test the viability of the unified Sudan and also it is to ensure that peace will endure in the country. During this period, the southern region of Sudan has enjoyed the high level of autonomy within the united Sudan. In which it determines whether the southern region would officially leave from Sudan.

In the month of April 2010, the country held the elections wherein its purpose was to pave way for democratic transformation. However, it turned out that it was encouraging the power sharing in between the SPLA and the NCP, thus the elections divided them further. There was even evidence that both parties were committing fraud.

In accordance with CPA’s provisions, the people from the southern region voted for their own independence on the 9th of January 2011, which was the Southern Sudan Referendum. Six months after that, which was the 9th of July 2011, the 6-year Interim Period ended. South Sudan then became the newest country in the world. CPA then provided the people living in the Abyei Area wherein they have the right to vote for their own referendum in order to determine whether the border region, which was contested at that time, would become part of the new country or remain in Sudan.

Even with all the successful recession of South Sudan from its country of origin, there were still critical aspects of the CPA that remained in idle – or not implemented. It included the provision of the Abyei Area Referendum and also the famous consultation processes for both in the Blue Nile and South Kordofan states. Both South Sudan and Sudan still continue immense challenges up to this day.

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In the month of April 2010, the country held the elections wherein its purpose was to pave way for democratic transformation.

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